- Industrial Oil Crops
- The Gifts of Imperfection: Embrace Who You Are
- What Is Industrial Crop Production?
- Industrial Crops and Uses
His research interests are in plant biochemistry and genetics and the application of biotechnology to crop improvement with particular emphasis on food, lipid, and oil quality, new uses of agricultural commodities, and plant pest defense. He holds five patents and is the author of more than peer-reviewed publications. Randall J. Recently, he served as scientific director of the Alberta Innovates Phytola Center, which specializes in oilseed innovations, including research on the development of industrial oil crops.
From to , Randall was with the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Lethbridge Alberta, Canada , serving as chair from to His doctoral research in plant biochemistry was conducted at the University of Manitoba and Grain Research Laboratory of the Canadian Grain Commission. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
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Hemp , wheat , linseed flax , bamboo. Coir , cotton , flax, hemp, manila hemp , papyrus , sisal. Pharmaceuticals traditional and therapeutic proteins novel. Plant feedstocks will become more attractive to entrepreneurs when it becomes possible to process them at the biorefinery level. Technologies that can process plant feedstock at that level are still at the developmental stage. Use of food crops for biofuel has generated concerns of food shortage, but these will dissipate as industries shift to biomass-based feedstocks.
The future prospects for plantbased industry appear bright with proper capital and scientific investment. References Abbott, T. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 39, Alexander, R. Environmental Science and Technology 42, Altieri, M. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Arbige, M. Industrial Bioprocessing 27, 2. Ashby, R. Biomacromolecules 6, Barbirato, F. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 47, Biebl, H. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 27, Buchanan, G.
In: Janick, J. Buhr, T. Plant Journal 30, Cahoon, E. AgBioForum 6, Journal of Biological Chemistry , Cambardella, C.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 56, Clark, A. Sustainable Agriculture Network, Beltsville, Maryland. Crandall, L. Inform 13, Davis, G. In: Minteer S. Alcohol Fuels. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. Dharmadi, Y. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 94, Erhan, S. Industrial Crops and Products 6, Evangelista, R. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 83, Evans, L. Farrell, A. Science , Hall, J. Wiley, New York, pp. Harry O Kuru, R. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland. Hood, E. Plant Biotechnology Journal 1, IFAD, Rome.
Johnson, J. Agronomy Journal 98, Kinney, A. In: Setlow, J. Genetic Engineering Volume Plenum Press, New York, pp. Kjoller, C. In: Shewry, P. Portland Press, London, pp. Lanzani, A. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 60, Laser, M. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 3, Lowery, C. Maskina, M. Soil Science Society America Journal 57, Medina, L. Cereal Chemistry 67, Miflin, B. Moreau, R. In: Eggleston, G. Nielson, E. Agricultural Economics Report No. Padgett, T. Time Magazine, Time Inc, 29 January Papanikolaou, S. Journal of Biotechnology 77, Journal of Applied Microbiology 92, Parrot, W.
In: Specht, J. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. Pimentel, D. Natural Resources Research 14, Riggs, T. Journal of Agricultural Science 97, Sainju, U. HortScience 32, Schmer, M. Sheridan, C. Nature Biotechnology 23, Shumaker, G. Publication No. SoyStats Soy Stats Guide. Srinivasan, R. Biological Engineering 1, Suthers, P. United States Patent Number Thurston, C. Microbiology , Ulgiati, S. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 20, United Soybean Board, Chesterfield, Missouri.
Van Boven, M. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, Vane, L. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 80, Watkins, K. Wesseler, J. Energy Policy 35, Wilhelm, W.
Industrial Oil Crops
Agronomy Journal 99, Worldwatch Institute Implications for agriculture and rural development. In: Biofuels for Transport. Earthscan, London, pp. Introduction World energy demands are rising and fossil resources are declining. While we should improve energy efficiency and encourage energy conservation, alternative energy resources are required for sustainable development of the worlds economy.
Bioenergy is renewable energy made from plant-derived organic matter, collectively termed biomass. Biomass is widely available and can be converted through a wide range of technologies to different forms of energy, chemicals and materials that conventionally are derived from fossil resources Fig. Many industrial crops potentially could make a significant contribution to bioenergy production. The bioenergy industry holds great promise for our economy, environment and society. Sustainable development of the bioenergy industry will not only reduce global reliance on fossil energy but also bring new economic opportunities to many developing countries and the rural areas of developed countries.
Value will be added to otherwise unused, underused or improperly used biomass resources; non-arable lands may be used to grow energy crops; rural communities will be able to access local energy supplies; and related industries will be established nearby. All these will offer new growth opportunities and higher incomes to agricultural and forest producers, bioenergy.
This will also improve the standard of living and create new employment opportunities Fig. The net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy sources are less than those from petroleum sources Fig. The environmental benefits of bioenergy are at least threefold: i it reduces the use of environmentally unfriendly fossil resources; ii biomass sequesters CO2 and therefore is more carbon neutral than fossil energy; and iii it helps waste management.
There are increasing concerns about the undesirable impacts of bioenergy activities on our ecosystem and environment.
These concerns include land and water resource use and competition with food supplies, soil erosion due to excessive removal of biomass and decreased biodiversity due to monoculture and short-rotation crops. These concerns may be addressed through informed planning that keeps ecological and environmental factors in mind, government policy that offers incentives to good agricultural practice, adequate management systems that control biomass collection and technological development which facilitates biomass production using less land and water, non-arable land and high-yield crops.
Further life-cycle studies of key parameters are indeed necessary to clarify the social, economical and environmental impacts of the bioenergy industry. Employment requirements for energy projects. The net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels and various biofuels. Edwards et al.
The Gifts of Imperfection: Embrace Who You Are
Developed sustainably and used efficiently, bioenergy can induce growth in developing countries, reduce oil demand and address environmental problems. The potential benefits include: reduction of greenhouse gases, recuperation of soil productivity and degraded land, and economic benefits from adding value to agricultural activities and improving access to and quality of energy services.
The production of bioenergy involves a range of technologies, including solid combustion, gasification and fermentation. These technologies produce energy from a diverse set of biological resources traditional crops, crop residues, energy-dedicated crops, manure and the organic component of urban waste. The results are bioenergy products that provide multiple energy services: cooking fuel, heat, electricity and transportation fuels Fig.
It is this very diversity that holds the potential of a winwin situation for the environment and for social and economic development. Bioenergy has to be viewed not as a replacement for oil but as one element of a portfolio of renewable sources of energy. Coherent and mutually supportive environmental and economic policies may be needed to encourage the emergence of a globally dispersed. The demand for energy is growing rapidly and is expected to double or perhaps triple during this century.
Current global energy resources consist of fossil oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear power and renewables Fig. The current use of modern bioenergy may be constrained by a number of barriers but primarily biomass feedstock-related issues. Maize and soybean, current primary biomass feedstocks for transportation fuel production in the USA, have to compete with food production for arable land use and could drive a possible rise in both biofuel and food prices, which could have a huge negative impact on the large population groups in developing countries.
Harvesting, collection and transport of lignocellulosic biomass remain costly. Many conversion technologies are still at the developing and demonstration stage, and their techno-economics has not been well studied for different regions in the world with various levels of natural resources and economic development.
Biomass Resources and Potential The total world annual biomass production is estimated at quads a quad of energy, or quadrillion British thermal units, is equivalent to million barrels of oil , which is about eight times the total annual world consumption of energy from all sources about quads BRIC, With other types of biomass and increasing interest in growing energy speciality crops, biomass resources will have a great potential to meet a large portion of US energy needs.
Table 2. Type and availability The US Biomass Research and Development Board classified biomass into the following three categories, based on the maturity of their production processes:. First generation feedstocks include maize for ethanol and soybeans for biodiesel. These feedstocks are produced using mature production processes and are currently in commercial use. Future cost savings due to technique refinements are likely to be marginal.
Second generation feedstocks consist of the residues or leftovers from crop and forest harvests without a food use. Technologies for production and processing of these feedstocks are emerging, with significant potential for reducing production and processing costs. Third generation feedstocks are speciality energy crops, representing long-term significance for sustainable development of the biofuels industry.
These feedstocks include perennial grasses, fast-growing trees and algae. Further research and development are necessary. How much of these residue and waste resources are available for bioenergy production depends on how they can be recovered, which is a function of tree form, technology and timing of the removal of the biomass from the forests.
Agricultural biomass Agricultural biomass is the largest available feedstock resource including starch, sugar and oil crops, crop residues and animal manure. Maize and soybean are the major feedstock for ethanol and biodiesel fuel production in the USA. Total maize production increased from The total world production of ethanol in was estimated at over 46 hm3 and projected to be over 82 hm3 by Biodiesel production from major producing countries was t in , which is much smaller than ethanol fuels.
In the USA, biodiesel use is now mandated to grow from million l million gallons in to 3. The EU mandates for 5. Increasing demands for biodiesel will certainly put enormous pressure on vegetable oil supply. Other grains oats, sorghum, wheat, rice and barley and sugar crops sugarcane, sugarbeet are used for ethanol production Kim and Dale, Grain sorghum produces a similar amount of ethanol per bushel as maize, but the sorghum yield is. Biomass feedstock can also be divided into the following major categories based on their plant origins. Forestland biomass Forestland biomass includes logging residues, other removal residues, thinning from timberland and other forestland, mill residues, urban wood waste and conventionally sourced wood.
Traditionally, woody biomass is used as fuelwood direct burning , charcoal and black liquor the spent pulping chemicals and the lignin component of wood after chemical pulping. Today, with increasing interest in cellulosic ethanol, forest biomass has become a major feedstock for ethanol fermentation.
The US forestland produces a total of about 20 billion dry t of biomass, among which there are about million dry t of residues and wastes, including the recovered residues generated by traditional logging activities and residues generated from forest. In Brazil, the second largest ethanol producer in the world, ethanol is produced mainly from sugarcane see Chapter 4, this volume. With increasing demand for ethanol and competition with food and feed supplies, agricultural crop residues lignocellulosic biomass become very attractive.
Researchers have been developing technologies to convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol see Chapter 6. Agricultural crop residues are the biomass that remains in the field after harvest. The world produces about 1. The USA is projected to produce million dry t of agricultural crop residues annually.
What Is Industrial Crop Production?
Among these crop residues is maize stover, with a potential annual production of million dry t. Speciality energy crops Energy crops are fast-growing speciality crops that are grown for the purpose of producing energy. These include annual perennial crops such as forage sorghum and switchgrass, fast-growing trees such as willow and poplar, and microalgae.
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Forage sorghum grows from 1. Herbaceous crops such as switchgrass, lucerne and miscanthus are receiving considerable attention. Switchgrass yields on average about 9. Woody trees such as hybrid poplar and willow yield on average These yields are much higher than most of the grains and maize stover BRDR, There is increasing interest in growing other starch and oil crops for biofuels. For example, oilseed crops such as Indian mustard, rapeseed and many nut crops such as Jatropha curcas and oil palm are potential vegetable oil sources for biodiesel.
The lipid profiles of oils from these crops are different from soybean oils. Therefore, modification of the manufacturing processes is necessary. Another potential alternative feedstock under active development is microalgae. Microalgae could help avoid a number of the sustainability issues associated with land use, freshwater use, deforestation and food production. Microalgae production also provides significant environmental benefits through effective CO2 sequestration. Despite intensive studies on microalgae in the past 40 years, there is no economically viable microalgae production system commercially available on the market.
Animal manures, food processing residues and wastes and municipal solid wastes These wastes and residues are considered secondary and tertiary biomass feedstocks. Animal manures typically are applied as organic fertilizers on farms. Excess manures can be converted to bioenergy, which would reduce nutrient runoff and contamination of surface water and groundwater resources He et al.
Food processing residues are generated in the manufacture and distribution of food for a number of reasons, including spoilage, removal of unusable portions, discarding of substandard products and packaging failure. Municipal solid wastes MSWs consist of food scraps, papers, yard wastes, cardboard, plastics, woods, etc. A major concern and challenge for both food processing residues and MSWs as bioenergy feedstocks is their inconsistency. Collection and delivered costs of biomass feedstock Most biomass feedstocks are widely distributed in loose form and need to be collected, packaged, stored and shipped to conversion.
Technologies and equipment currently exist for biomass harvest, collection, baling and storage. New methods may be needed for non-commonly collected and new biomass crops. Nevertheless, the following factors must be considered in planning biomass collection and transportation Sokhansanj et al. Although cellulosic residues in the field are rather inexpensive Perlack and Turhollow, , getting the residues to the processing plants and converting them to fermentable sugars is very costly Wyman, Research has found that the financial advantage provided by large processing capacity may be offset by the high delivery costs of feedstock and suggests that biomass industry development should include smaller-scale facilities to be economically viable English, Thus, cellulosic ethanol.
The above analysis leads us to believe that future economically viable alternative biomass processing systems must cut down feedstock-related costs significantly by reducing transport costs and developing more efficient processing technologies. Bio-oils BTU British thermal unit is 7. If biomass feedstock can be processed into bio-oils on the farm and the bio-oils can be used directly as a boiler fuel or transported to a central biorefinery for further processing, significant cost savings can be realized.
To achieve this, alternative biomass energy production systems must be developed. The Distributed Biomass Energy Production System DBEPS concept relies on scalable technologies that can be implemented on average-size farms where crop residues are converted to bio-oils with minimal transportation Ruan et al. The bio-oils produced can be used as home heating oil or transported to a central biorefinery where upgrading and manufacture of other products can be carried out. Any DBEPS must meet the following criteria: i affordable capital cost; ii low transport costs; iii easy to operate turnkey technology; and iv economic and social benefits for the rural community.
- The Order of Prepositional Phrases in the Structure of the Clause (Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today).
- Non-food crops.
- Marginal Lands for Growing Industrial Crops: Turning a Burden into an Opportunity!
Feedstock may be collected from one farm or neighbouring farms with minimal transport costs. Farms can use the bio-oils or sell for profit. Biomass feedstock outlook Considering the benefits and concerns discussed in the beginning of this chapter, future biomass feedstock supplies depend on a number of complex factors, particularly those related to sustainability, which may give rise to a number of uncertainties of biomass supplies.
Energy farming on current EJ more average Potential land surplus: 04 Gha average: agricultural land development: 12 Gha. A large surplus requires structural EJ adaptation towards more efficient agricultural production systems. When this is not feasible, the bioenergy potential could be reduced to zero. Biomass production on EJ On a global scale, a maximum land surface of marginal lands 1.
Extensive production systems require reuse of residues for maintaining soil fertility. Intensive systems allow for higher utilization rates of residues. Forest residues EJ The sustainable energy potential of the worlds forests is unclear some natural forests are protected.
Low value: includes limitations with respect to logistics and strict standards for removal of forest material. High value: technical potential. Figures include processing residues. Manures EJ Use of dried dung. Low estimate based on global current use. High estimate: technical potential. Utilization collection in the longer term is uncertain. Organic wastes EJ Estimate on basis of literature values. Strongly dependent on economic development, consumption and the use of biomaterials. Figures include the organic fraction of MSW and waste wood. Higher values possible by more intensive use of biomaterials.
Combined potential EJ EJ Most pessimistic scenario: no land available for energy farming; only utilization of residues. Most optimistic scenario: intensive agriculture concentrated on the better quality soils. In parentheses: average potential in a world aiming for large-scale deployment of bioenergy. Source: Hooper and Li, ; Berndes et al. Bioenergy Technologies Biomass processing technologies are widely grouped into first generation and second generation. First generation technologies are well established.
These include transesterification of plant oils, fermentation of plant sugars and. Second generation or advanced technologies often refer. Major bioenergy technologies, feedstocks used and energy produced. Technology Densification Direct combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Anaerobic digestion Conversion process Major biomass feedstock Physical Thermochemical Thermochemical Thermochemical Agricultural residues Wood, agricultural and municipal solid waste, residential fuels Wood, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste Wood, agricultural and municipal solid waste Animal manure and agricultural waste, landfills wastewater Sugar or starch crops, wood waste, pulp sludge, grass straw Rapeseed, soybeans, waste vegetable oil, animal fats Wood, agricultural and municipal solid waste Energy or fuel produced Solid fuels briquette, pallets Heat, steam, electricity Low- or medium-energy intensity producer gas Synthetic fuel oil biocrude , charcoal Medium intensity gas methane Ethanol Biodiesel Methanol.
Biochemical anaerobic Ethanol production Biochemical aerobic Biodiesel production Chemical Methanol production Thermochemical. These technologies comprise a range of alternatives such as enzymatic production of lignocellulosic ethanol, synthetic gas-based fuels, pyrolysis oil-based biofuels, gasification and others that are not yet economically viable and the technical aspects are still under development. It facilitates easy transportation and better handling and storage, besides being efficient in use as an alternative fuel to coal and firewood.
The high temperature developed during the high-pressure densification process assists the inherent lignin present in the biomass to bind the biomass and form densified fuel briquettes or pallets. Physical conversion Direct combustion Several physical processes have been used to transform biomass to energy products or intermediate feedstocks.
These processes include dewatering, drying, size reduction and densification. Water removal in the form of liquid dewatering or vapour drying is often used as a pretreatment for other conversion processes or to meet the moisture content requirement for certain solid fuels. Dewatering may be accomplished through filtration, centrifugation, pressing or extrusion. Wet biomass may be dried in natural air, sun or artificial heat. Size reduction is used as a pretreatment for other conversions or in preparation of biomass for direct fuel use.
Densification of loose biomass is called biomass briquetting Direct combustion is the burning of biomass in air to convert biomass into heat, mechanical power or electricity using various equipment; e. Direct combustion is simple and has the advantage that it employs well-developed, commercially available technology. The disadvantages include thermal penalties associated with burning high-moisture fuels, agglomeration and ash fouling due to alkali compounds in biomass and relatively low thermodynamic efficiencies for steam power plants.
Biochemical conversion Two biological conversion processes are commonly used in bioenergy production, namely ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion. Ethanol is produced mostly through yeast fermentation of sugars, which may be derived from sugar crops see Chapter 4 , grains see Chapter 5 and lignocellulosics see Chapter 6. Sugars glucose, fructose and sucrose can be fermented directly to ethanol by yeasts, while grain starch and lignocelluosics must be hydrolysed to fermentable sugars first.
The ethanol yields from different biomass feedstocks are listed in Table 2. There are large-scale commercial plants for both sugar-based and starch-based ethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is much more complex. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics, which are composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, has been proven difficult and costly.
Pretreatments are usually required to increase the surface area of lignocellulosic materials and thus make polysaccharides more susceptible to enzymatic attack hydrolysis. Anaerobic digestion is often employed to convert organics in animal wastes and municipal sludge to biogas mainly methane and carbon dioxide by bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic digestion. Biogas can be used directly in gas turbines to produce electricity. Thermochemical conversion In gasification conversion, lignocellulosic feedstocks are converted to a combustible gas mixture called synthesis gas syngas or producer gas through partial oxidation reactions at high temperature, ranging typically from to C.
Syngas may vary in composition with type and moisture content of feedstock, type of gasifier, gasification conditions, etc. Syngas can be burned to produce heat or used in gas engines or gas turbines to produce electricity. Gasification units are commercially available. Syngas clean-up and conditioning has been identified as a key technical barrier to the commercialization of biomass gasification technologies and has the greatest impact on the cost of clean syngas. Catalytic reforming and fermentation of syngas to other chemicals such as short-chain fatty acids, methanol, ethanol, other mixed alcohols, hydrogen, aldehydes, olefins and polyhydroxyalkanoates PHA are being investigated.
Pyrolysis is another important thermochemical conversion process in which biomass is degraded to bio-oil, syngas and chars at medium-high temperature C in the absence of oxygen. Biomass is heated usually through a heated surface or sands. A new type of pyrolysis process using microwave heating is being developed. The technical advantages of microwave-assisted pyrolysis MAP over conventional pyrolysis include: 1.
Microwave heating is uniform and easy to control. It does not require a high degree of feedstock grinding e. The conversion products pyrolytic gas and bio-oils are cleaner than those from gasification and conventional pyrolysis because it does not have to use biomass powder and does not require agitation and fluidization.
Ethanol yields from different biomass feedstocks. The syngas produced has a higher heating value since it is not diluted by the carrying gas for fluidizing the biomass materials. Microwave heating is a mature technology and development of microwave heating systems for biomass pyrolysis is of low cost. Wood wastes, sludge, slaughter wastes and MSWs have been tested with microwave pyrolysis Aubin and Roy, ; Elliott, ; Diebold and Czernik, The bio-oil produced may be refined to liquid fuels or converted to other chemicals.
The product fraction ratio of bio-oil:solid char:syngas varies primarily with heating rate and biomass composition. The ratios for gasification, slow pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis are , and , respectively. Biomass pyrolysis has not been broadly commercialized. Complexity and instability of bio-oil is the key barrier to the commercialization of biomass pyrolysis. There is an ongoing focused effort to stabilize bio-oils from biomass pyrolysis. Another new development in pyrolysis is catalytic pyrolysis in which catalysts are premixed with biomass feedstock prior to thermal treatment.
By using carefully selected catalysts, the thermochemical degradation reactions are directed to produce bio-oil with desirable chemical profiles. Chemical conversion Biodiesel processing is a mature commercial technology. Biodiesel is essentially methyl esters of fatty acids, made through a chemical process called transesterification in which reactions between vegetable oil and alcohol methanol or ethanol are catalysed by alkali KOH or NaOH. The reactions produce two products methyl esters and glycerin.
The glycerin as a by-product is removed from the methyl esters biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in compression-ignition diesel engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free from sulfur and aromatics. Biorefining Biorefining is a concept derived from petroleum refining.
A biorefinery uses biomass as feedstock as opposed to fossil resources used in a petroleum refinery. The goal of biorefining is to produce a wide range of products such as fuels, materials, chemicals, etc. Because biomass is not a uniform feedstock, several biorefinery platforms such as biological platforms and. A biorefinery uses a portfolio of conversion and refining technologies and may be integrated with biomass feedstock production.
Industrial Crops and Uses
Figure 2. An integrated biorefinery is capable of producing multiple product streams and thus multiple income streams from a single biomass feedstock and, therefore, is more economically viable than single product-based production schemes. References Aubin, H.